Effects of Astaxanthin from Litopenaeus Vannamei on Carrageenan-Induced Edema and Pain Behavior in Mice

Molecules. 2016 Mar 19;21(3):382. doi: 10.3390/molecules21030382.


Carrageenan produces both inflammation and pain when injected in mouse paws via enhancement of reactive oxygen species formation. We have investigated an effect of astaxanthin extracted from Litopenaeus vannamei in carrageenan-induced mice paw edema and pain. The current study demonstrates interesting effects from astaxanthin treatment in mice: an inhibition of paw edema induced in hind paw, an increase in mechanical paw withdrawal threshold and thermal paw withdrawal latency, and a reduction in the amount of myeloperoxidase enzyme and lipid peroxidation products in the paw. Furthermore the effect was comparable to indomethacin, a standard treatment for inflammation symptoms. Due to adverse effects of indomethacin on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems, our study suggests promising prospect of astaxanthin extract as an anti-inflammatory alternative against carrageenan-induced paw edema and pain behavior.

Keywords: Litopenaeus vannamei; astaxanthin; carrageenan; inflammatory pain; mice; myeloperoxidase.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / administration & dosage*
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / chemistry
  • Carrageenan / toxicity
  • Edema / chemically induced
  • Edema / drug therapy*
  • Hindlimb / drug effects
  • Hindlimb / pathology
  • Inflammation / drug therapy*
  • Inflammation / pathology
  • Mice
  • Pain / drug therapy*
  • Pain / pathology
  • Penaeidae / chemistry
  • Xanthophylls / administration & dosage
  • Xanthophylls / chemistry


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Xanthophylls
  • astaxanthine
  • Carrageenan