Mechanisms of Long Noncoding RNA Function in Development and Disease

Cell Mol Life Sci. 2016 Jul;73(13):2491-509. doi: 10.1007/s00018-016-2174-5. Epub 2016 Mar 23.

Abstract

Since decades it has been known that non-protein-coding RNAs have important cellular functions. Deep sequencing recently facilitated the discovery of thousands of novel transcripts, now classified as long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), in many vertebrate and invertebrate species. LncRNAs are involved in a wide range of cellular mechanisms, from almost all aspects of gene expression to protein translation and stability. Recent findings implicate lncRNAs as key players of cellular differentiation, cell lineage choice, organogenesis and tissue homeostasis. Moreover, lncRNAs are involved in pathological conditions such as cancer and cardiovascular disease, and therefore provide novel biomarkers and pharmaceutical targets. Here we discuss examples illustrating the versatility of lncRNAs in gene control, development and differentiation, as well as in human disease.

Keywords: Cancer; Cardiovascular disease; Chromatin; Differentiation; Epigenetics; Gene regulation; Genome organization; LncRNA.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / genetics*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / metabolism
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / pathology
  • Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly
  • DNA Methylation
  • Epigenesis, Genetic
  • Gene Expression Regulation*
  • Histone Code
  • Humans
  • Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Neoplasms / pathology
  • RNA, Long Noncoding / analysis
  • RNA, Long Noncoding / genetics*
  • RNA, Long Noncoding / metabolism

Substances

  • RNA, Long Noncoding