Aim: To evaluate the long-term efficacy, safety and tolerability of dapagliflozin versus placebo added to usual care in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD).
Methods: Data were pooled from two phase III studies (NCT01031680 and NCT01042977) in high-risk patients (N = 1887) with T2DM and CVD treated with dapagliflozin (10 mg/day) or placebo. Patients completing the double-blind treatment studies (24 weeks) entered one or two sequential double-blind, long-term (LT) extensions of 28 (LT1; n = 1649) and 52 (LT2; n = 568) weeks.
Results: Baseline and CVD characteristics were similar in the two groups. Patients entering LT1 and LT2 on dapagliflozin maintained a greater mean reduction in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) versus placebo at 52 weeks [LT1, -0.58% (95% confidence interval -0.68, -0.49)] and 104 weeks [LT2, -0.35% (95% confidence interval -0.59, -0.12)]. Mean body weight and systolic blood pressure (SBP) reductions versus placebo were maintained in patients entering LT1 (52 weeks; -2.23 kg and -3.25 mmHg, respectively) and LT2 (104 weeks; -3.16 kg and -2.03 mmHg, respectively). Patients on dapagliflozin had a better three-item composite endpoint of clinical benefit (glycaemia, weight and SBP) compared with placebo at week 24 (LT1, 10.1% vs. 1.1%) and week 104 (LT2, 6.7% vs. 1.4%). Genital and urinary tract infections were more frequent with dapagliflozin than with placebo. Events of hypoglycaemia, renal impairment/failure and volume depletion were similar between groups.
Conclusions: The long-term efficacy of dapagliflozin to maintain reductions in HbA1c, SBP and body weight over 2 years, together with its tolerability profile, make dapagliflozin an appropriate option in high-risk patients with T2DM and CVD.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01730534.
Keywords: cardiovascular disease; dapagliflozin; sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor; type 2 diabetes mellitus.
© 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.