L-2,3-diaminopropionate generates diverse metabolic stresses in Salmonella enterica

Mol Microbiol. 2016 Jul;101(2):210-23. doi: 10.1111/mmi.13384. Epub 2016 May 6.


Unchecked amino acid accumulation in living cells has the potential to cause stress by disrupting normal metabolic processes. Thus, many organisms have evolved degradation strategies that prevent endogenous accumulation of amino acids. L-2,3-diaminopropionate (Dap) is a non-protein amino acid produced in nature where it serves as a precursor to siderophores, neurotoxins and antibiotics. Dap accumulation in Salmonella enterica was previously shown to inhibit growth by unknown mechanisms. The production of diaminopropionate ammonia-lyase (DpaL) alleviated Dap toxicity in S. enterica by catalyzing the degradation of Dap to pyruvate and ammonia. Here, we demonstrate that Dap accumulation in S. enterica elicits a proline requirement for growth and specifically inhibits coenzyme A and isoleucine biosynthesis. Additionally, we establish that the DpaL-dependent degradation of Dap to pyruvate proceeds through an unbound 2-aminoacrylate (2AA) intermediate, thus contributing to 2AA stress inside the cell. The reactive intermediate deaminase, RidA, is shown to prevent 2AA damage caused by DpaL-dependent Dap degradation by enhancing the rate of 2AA hydrolysis. The results presented herein inform our understanding of the effects Dap has on metabolism in S. enterica, and likely other organisms, and highlight the critical role played by RidA in preventing 2AA stress stemming from Dap detoxification.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acids / metabolism
  • Aminohydrolases / metabolism
  • Ammonia-Lyases / chemistry*
  • Ammonia-Lyases / drug effects
  • Ammonia-Lyases / metabolism*
  • Ammonia-Lyases / pharmacology
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism
  • Proline / biosynthesis
  • Proline / metabolism
  • Pyruvic Acid / metabolism
  • Salmonella enterica / metabolism
  • Stress, Physiological / physiology


  • Amino Acids
  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Pyruvic Acid
  • Proline
  • Aminohydrolases
  • Ammonia-Lyases
  • diaminopropionate ammonia-lyase