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, 21 (3), 380

Development of Wax-Incorporated Emulsion Gel Beads for the Encapsulation and Intragastric Floating Delivery of the Active Antioxidant From Tamarindus Indica L


Development of Wax-Incorporated Emulsion Gel Beads for the Encapsulation and Intragastric Floating Delivery of the Active Antioxidant From Tamarindus Indica L

Sitthiphong Soradech et al. Molecules.


In this study, tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed extracts with potential antioxidant activity and toxicity to cancer cells were developed as functional foods and nutraceutical ingredients in the form of emulsion gel beads. Three extracts were obtained from ethanol and water: TSCH50, TSCH95 and TSCH. All extracts exhibited high potential for superoxide anion scavenging activity over the IC50 range < 5-11 µg/mL and had no toxic effects on normal cells, however, the water extract (TSCH) was the most effective due to its free radical scavenging activity and toxicity in mitochondrial membranes of cancer cells. Next a study was designed to develop a new formulation for encapsulation and intragastric floating delivery of tamarind seed extract (TSCH) using wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads, which were prepared using a modified ionotropic gelation technique. Tamarind seed extract at 1% (w/w) was used as the active ingredient in all formulations. The effect of the types and amounts of wax on the encapsulation efficiency and percentage of the active release of alginate gel beads was also investigated. The results demonstrated that the incorporation of both waxes into the gel beads had an effect on the percentage of encapsulation efficiency (%) and the percentage of the active ingredient release. Furthermore, the addition of water insoluble waxes (carnauba and bee wax) significantly retarded the release of the active ingredient. The addition of both waxes had a slight effect on drug release behavior. Nevertheless, the increase in incorporated waxes in all formulations could sustain the percentage of active ingredient release. In conclusion, wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads using a modified ionotropic gelation technique could be applied for the intragastric floating delivery and controlled release of functional food and nutraceutical products for their antioxidant and anticancer capacity.

Keywords: antioxidant activity; emulsion gel beads; encapsulation; ionotropic gelation technique; mitochondria toxicity; tamarind seed extract.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


Figure 1
Figure 1
Fluorescence image of HeLa cells labeled with JC-1 and DNA stain Hoechst 3342 (blue). Cells were treated with valinomycin (0.5 µg/mL) and water extract of tamarind seed coat (TSCH) at concentrations of 5 and 15 µg/mL. Left and middle left panels show aggregate (red) and monomer (green) fluorescence, respectively. The right panels show the overlay of the two images; in this case, the orange/yellow color denotes co-localization of the red and green fluorescence signals.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Effect of the water extract of tamarind seed coat (TSCH) on JC-1 fluorescence intensity. HeLa cells were incubated with TSCH at 5 and 15 µg/mL and compared with 0.5 µg/mL valinomycin (chemotherapeutic agent). Fluorescence intensities were analyzed after 30 min of JC-1 incubation. Values represent the mean ± S.D. of 10,000 cells.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Effect of different types (3a) and amounts (3b) of waxes on the percentage of encapsulation efficacy of emulsion gel beads containing tamarind seed extract.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Effect of types (4a) and amounts (4b) of waxes on the percentage of active release from alginate gel beads containing tamarind seed extract.

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