Objective: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most frequently seen community-acquired infections worldwide. E. coli causes 90% of urinary system infections. To guide the empirical therapy, the resistance pattern of E. coli responsible for community-acquired UTI was evaluated throughout a seven-year period in this study.
Material and methods: The urine cultures of patients with urinary tract infections admitted to outpatient clinics between 1(st) January 2008 and 31(st) December 2014 were analyzed. Presence of ≥10(5) colony-forming units/mL in urine culture media was considered as significant for UTI. Isolated bacteria were identified by standard laboratory techniques or automated system VITEK2 (BioMerieux, France) and BD PhoenixTM 100 (BD, USA), as required. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method using Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) criteria.
Results: A total of 13281 uropathogens were isolated. Overall E. coli accounted for 8975 (67%) of all isolates. Resistance rates of E. coli to antimicrobial agents was demonstrated to be as follows: ampicillin 66.9%, cefazolin 30.9%, cefuroxime 30.9%, ceftazidime 14.9%, cefotaxime 28%, cefepime 12%, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 36.9%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SXT) 20%, ciprofloxacin 49.9%, amikacin 0.3%, gentamycin 24%, nitrofurantoin 0.9%, and fosfomycin 4.3%. There was no resistance to imipenem nor meropenem. The frequency of ESBL-producing E. coli strains was 24%.
Conclusion: It is concluded that fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin are appropriate empirical therapy for community-acquired UTI empirical therapy, but the fluoroquinolones and the TMP-SXT shall not be used in the emprical treatment of UTI at this stage. In conclusion, as resistance rates show regional differences, it is necessary to regularly examine regional resistance rates to determine the appropriate empiric antibiotic treatment and national antibiotic usage policies must be reorganized according to data obtained from these studies.
Keywords: Antimicrobial susceptibility; Escherichia coli; community-acquired urinary tract infections.