Background: Oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are interrelated factors in the etiology of cardiovascular disease, but their linkage to type 2 diabetes is less clear. We examined the association of these biomarkers with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D).
Methods: Analysis of 2339 participants in the community-based coronary artery risk development in young adults (CARDIA) study. Participants (age 40.1 ± 3.6 years, 44 % Black, 58 % women) were free of diabetes, and were followed 10 years. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for incident T2D adjusting for the other biomarkers under study, demographic and lifestyle measures, dietary biomarkers, BMI (kg/m(2)) and metabolic syndrome components.
Results: F2-isoprostanes and oxidized LDL (oxidative stress) were positively associated with incident T2D, but the associations were attenuated by adjustment for BMI. C-reactive protein was positively associated with T2D even with full adjustment: HR (95 % CI) = 2.21 (1.26-3.88) for quartile 4 (Q4) v. quartile 1 (Q1). The HR (95 % CI) for T2D for biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction ICAM-1 and E-selectin for Q4 v. Q1 were 1.64 (0.96-2.81) and 1.68 (1.04-2.71) respectively, with full adjustment. Including these two markers in a common risk score incorporating BMI and clinical measures improved the prediction probability of T2D: relative risk for the average person classified up compared to the average person classified down: 1.09, (1.06-1.13), P < 0.0001.
Conclusions: Biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction were positively associated with incident T2D. ICAM-1 and E-selectin add to the prediction of T2D beyond a common risk score.
Keywords: Endothelial dysfunction; Incidence; Inflammation; Type 2 diabetes; Young adults; oxidative stress.