Oxidative Stress and Periodontal Disease in Obesity

Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Mar;95(12):e3136. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000003136.


Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the jaws and is more prevalent in obesity. Local and systemic oxidative stress may be an early link between periodontal disease and obesity. The primary aim of this study was to detect whether increased periodontal disease susceptibility in obese individuals is associated with local and systemic oxidative stress. Accordingly; we analyzed periodontal status and systemic (serum) and local (gingival crevicular fluid [GCF]) oxidative status markers in young obese women in comparison with age-matched lean women.Twenty obese and 20 lean women participated. Periodontal condition was determined by clinical periodontal indices including probing depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index, gingival bleeding index, and plaque index. Anthropometric, hormonal, and metabolic measurements were also performed. Blood and GCF sampling was performed at the same time after an overnight fasting. Serum and GCF total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), and total oxidant status (TOS) levels were determined, and oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated.Clinical periodontal analyses showed higher gingival index and gingival bleeding index in the obese group (P = 0.001 for both) with no significant difference in probing depth, clinical attachment level, and plaque index between the obese and the lean women. Oxidant status analyses revealed lower GCF and serum TAOC, and higher GCF and serum OSI values in the obese women (P < 0.05 for all). GCF TOS was higher in the obese women (P < 0.05), whereas there was a nonsignificant trend for higher serum TOS in obese women (P = 0.074). GCF TAOC values showed a negative correlation with body mass index, whereas GCF OSI was positively correlated with fasting insulin and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels (P < 0.05 for all). Clinical periodontal indices showed significant correlations with body mass index, insulin, and lipid levels, and also oxidant status markers.Our results suggest that young obese, otherwise healthy, women show findings of early periodontal disease (gingival inflammation) compared with age-matched healthy lean women, and that local/periodontal oxidative stress generated by obesity seems to be associated with periodontal disease.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Observational Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Body Mass Index
  • Disease Susceptibility / epidemiology
  • Disease Susceptibility / physiopathology
  • Female
  • Gingival Crevicular Fluid / physiology
  • Humans
  • Obesity / epidemiology
  • Obesity / physiopathology*
  • Oxidative Stress / physiology*
  • Periodontal Diseases / epidemiology
  • Periodontal Diseases / physiopathology*
  • Periodontal Index
  • Periodontium / physiopathology
  • Reference Values
  • Risk Factors
  • Statistics as Topic
  • Thinness / epidemiology
  • Thinness / physiopathology