Background: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is up-regulated in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Nevertheless, inhibition of mTOR is ineffective in inducing apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, likely because of the compensatory up-regulation of the androgen receptor (AR) pathway.
Methods: Patients who were eligible for this study had to have progressive CRPC with serum testosterone levels <50 ng/dL. No prior bicalutamide (except to prevent flare) or everolimus was allowed. Treatment included oral bicalutamide 50 mg and oral everolimus 10 mg, both once daily, with a cycle defined as 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response (≥30% reduction) from baseline. A sample size of 23 patients would have power of 0.8 and an α error of .05 (1-sided) if the combination had a PSA response rate of 50% versus a historic rate of 25% with bicalutamide alone.
Results: Twenty-four patients were enrolled. The mean age was 71.1 years (range, 53.0-87.0 years), the mean PSA level at study entry was 43.4 ng/dL (range, 2.5-556.9 ng/dL), and the mean length of treatment was 8 cycles (range, 1.0-23.0 cycles). Of 24 patients, 18 had a PSA response (75%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53-0.90), whereas 15 (62.5%; 95% CI, 0.41-0.81) had a PSA decrease ≥50%. The median overall survival was 28 months (95% CI, 14.1-42.7 months). Fourteen patients (54%; 95% CI, 0.37-0.78) developed grade 3 (13 patients) or grade 4 (1 patient with sepsis) adverse events that were attributable to treatment.
Conclusions: The combination of bicalutamide and everolimus has encouraging efficacy in men with bicalutamide-naive CRPC, thus warranting further investigation. A substantial number of patients experienced everolimus-related toxicity. Cancer 2016;122:1897-904. © 2016 American Cancer Society.
Keywords: bicalutamide; castration-resistant prostate cancer; everolimus; mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR); urology.
© 2016 American Cancer Society.