Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the gold standard in terms of study design, however, in the surgical setting conducting RCTs can often be unethical or logistically impossible. Case-control studies should become the major study design used in surgical research when RCTs are unable to be conducted and definitely replacing case series which offer little insight into surgical outcomes and disease processes.
Keywords: Bias; Case-control studies; Randomized clinical trials; Research studies; Sample size.
Twenty-year Perspective of Randomized Controlled Trials for Surgery of Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain: Citation Bias and Tangential KnowledgeNS Andrade et al. Spine J 13 (11), 1698-704. PMID 24012430. - ReviewThe research agenda of RCTs for surgery of CNLBP has not changed substantially in the last 20 years. Technical trials evaluating nuances of surgical techniques significan …
Using Routine Data to Complement and Enhance the Results of Randomised Controlled TrialsJD Lewsey et al. Health Technol Assess 4 (22), 1-55. PMID 11074392.The uses of routine data in these contexts had strengths and weaknesses. The SAH study suggested a means of assessing outcomes and survival rates following haemorrhage, w …
Surgical Research Revisited: Clinical Trials in the Cardiothoracic Surgical LiteratureAC Anyanwu et al. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 25 (3), 299-303. PMID 15019652. - ReviewMany RCTs in surgery by virtue of their design, sample size, and insufficient power are incapable of answering the questions researchers seek to address. Surgical trials …
Observational Studies in the Era of Randomized Trials: Finding the BalanceRC Castillo et al. J Bone Joint Surg Am 94 Suppl 1, 112-7. PMID 22810460.Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) constitute the gold standard for the generation of evidence-based medicine, but may not always be feasible. Furthermore, randomization …
Registries and Evidence-Based Medicine in Craniofacial and Plastic SurgeryBC Drolet et al. J Craniofac Surg 23 (1), 301-3. PMID 22337430.Evidence-based medicine is a vital process for maintaining and improving quality and value in health care. However, evidence-based practice is most limited by the availab …