Pneumocystis pneumonia suspected cases in 604 non-HIV and HIV patients

Int J Infect Dis. 2016 May;46:11-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2016.03.018. Epub 2016 Mar 25.


Background: Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is one of the most devastating fungal diseases in patients with impaired immunity. Effective antiviral therapies have reduced the burden of PCP among AIDS patients, but an increase in the prevalence of this disease among persons receiving immunosuppressive therapies has been reported.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed HIV and non-HIV PCP patients diagnosed in our department during a nine year period. Data were collected from the local database completed during the diagnosis procedure. For each patient, demographic, clinical, radiological, biological and therapeutic data were analyzed.

Results: A total of 21,274 bronchoalveolar samples were received from patients suspected of pneumocystosis during the study period, leading to a discharge diagnosis of PCP for 604 patients (143 HIV-positive and 461 HIV-negative). The ratio of non-HIV versus HIV patients presenting PCP increased from 1.7 to 5.6 during the study period. The mortality rate at day 14 was 16%, occurring mostly in non-HIV patients (20.6% compared to 1.4%, P<0.0001), while non-HIV patients were less symptomatic at diagnosis than AIDS patients.

Conclusions: This study presents one of the higher number of HIV and non-HIV patients presenting with PCP in a single center. Pneumocystosis is now a crucial health challenge for patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy, with a high mortality rate. This study highlights the need for international guidelines for prophylaxis of PCP in non-HIV patients.

Keywords: Consensus; Diagnosis; HIV; Outcome; Pneumocystis jiroveci; Pneumocystosis; Prophylaxis; non-HIV.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • France / epidemiology
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology*
  • HIV Infections / mortality
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pneumocystis / genetics
  • Pneumocystis / isolation & purification*
  • Pneumonia, Pneumocystis / diagnosis
  • Pneumonia, Pneumocystis / epidemiology*
  • Pneumonia, Pneumocystis / mortality
  • Prevalence
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Young Adult