Gingival crevicular fluid levels of cytokines/chemokines in chronic periodontitis: a meta-analysis

J Clin Periodontol. 2016 Sep;43(9):727-45. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12557. Epub 2016 Jun 23.


Aims: To compare gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) cytokines/chemokines levels between periodontally healthy subjects and subjects diagnosed with chronic periodontitis (ChP), before and after non-surgical periodontal treatment, and to establish their predictive value for periodontal disease progression.

Methods: Studies indexed in MEDLINE and EMBASE published in English, Portuguese and Spanish were eligible for this review. Database searches up to December 2015, and manual search of the reference list from reviews and selected articles was performed. Only studies providing data on GCF cytokines/chemokines levels in subjects diagnosed with ChP and periodontally healthy controls were included. Cross-sectional, case series, single-arm clinical studies, randomized controlled trials and prospective/retrospective cohort studies were included. Meta-analyses were conducted for those cytokines/chemokines with at least three available studies.

Results: GCF levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ and MCP-1/CCL2 were significantly higher in subjects diagnosed with ChP than periodontally healthy subjects. A significant decrease in GCF levels of IL-1β and IL-17 was observed after non-surgical periodontal treatment, whereas a significant increase was observed for IL-4.

Conclusion: Evidence for significant differences between periodontal health and ChP was observed for a few cytokines and one chemokine. No conclusions could be drawn with regards to increased risk of disease progression.

Keywords: chemokines; cytokines; gingival crevicular fluid; inflammation; periodontal diseases; periodontitis.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Chemokines
  • Chronic Periodontitis*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Cytokines
  • Gingival Crevicular Fluid
  • Humans
  • Periodontal Index


  • Chemokines
  • Cytokines