Purpose of review: The review discusses future directions in research on multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica, as long-held beliefs about these diseases are undermined with data from recent clinical trials.
Recent findings: Results of clinical trials for registration (phase 3) were reported in the last year. Anti-inflammatory approaches, such as daclizumab high-yield process targeting IL-2 receptor, and ocrelizumab targeting CD20 B cells, confirmed a beneficial role of immune suppression in relapsing-remitting disease. And now for the first time achieving the primary end point in primary progressive multiple sclerosis was attained with ocrelizumab.
Summary: The results in the past year challenge the long-held belief that relapsing-remitting disease is inflammatory, whereas progressive forms of the disease are 'less inflammatory' and more 'degenerative.'