A review of 88 cases from the literature with personal observations on 3 new patients is given of the syndrome featured by juvenile diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, hearing loss, diabetes insipidus, atonia of the urinary tract and bladder and other abnormalities. The postmortem in one of our cases is mentioned. The pattern of inheritance is autosomal recessive. The interpretation of the data on diabetes insipidus from the literature and in our three patients is also discussed. It can only be stated that neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus can be a component of the syndrome and that in many cases--particularly in the presence of lesions of the efferent urinary tract--the possibility of nephrogenous diabetes insipidus can not be excluded with certainty. It seems probable that the same mechanism can be held responsible for the lesions of the olfactory, optic, vestibular and cochlear nerves, the hypophyseal form of diabetes insipidus, retarded sexual maturation, abnormal pupillary reaction, myelopathy and the electro-encephalographic, electroneurological and electromyographic changes in the Wolfram syndrome. The process underlying this affection of neural structures remains obscure.