A GRP78-Directed Monoclonal Antibody Recaptures Response in Refractory Multiple Myeloma with Extramedullary Involvement

Clin Cancer Res. 2016 Sep 1;22(17):4341-9. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-3111. Epub 2016 Mar 30.


Purpose: Glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 78 is overexpressed in multiple myeloma, and both its surface expression and its biologic significance as key sensor of the unfolded protein response make GRP78 an ideal candidate for immunotherapeutic intervention. The monoclonal antibody PAT-SM6 targets surface GRP78 and leads to disease stabilization when used as single agent in a clinical trial. In this article, we evaluated expression of GRP78 in relapsed-refractory disease and explored PAT-SM6 therapy in combination regimens.

Experimental design: GRP78 expression was immunohistochemically analyzed during disease progression and development of drug resistance throughout different stages of multiple myeloma. Activity of PAT-SM6 was evaluated in combination with anti-multiple myeloma agents lenalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone in vitro Finally, we report on a multiple myeloma patient with relapsed-refractory disease treated with PAT-SM6 in combination with bortezomib and lenalidomide.

Results: Although sGRP78 expression was present at all stages, it increased with disease progression and was even strongly elevated in patients with drug-resistant and extramedullary disease. Pretreatment with dexamethasone as well as dual combination of PAT-SM6/lenalidomide further increased sGRP78 expression and consecutively showed synergistic anti-multiple myeloma effects with PAT-SM6 in proliferation assays. As proof of concept, a 62-year-old male with triple resistant multiple myeloma treated with PAT-SM6, bortezomib, and lenalidomide experienced partial remission of both intra- and extramedullary lesions.

Conclusions: PAT-SM6 therapy in combination regimens showed efficacy in relapsed-refractory multiple myeloma. Clin Cancer Res; 22(17); 4341-9. ©2016 AACR.

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / adverse effects
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use*
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological / administration & dosage
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological / adverse effects
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological / therapeutic use*
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Membrane / metabolism
  • Drug Resistance, Neoplasm
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone BiP
  • Gene Expression
  • Heat-Shock Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Heat-Shock Proteins / genetics
  • Heat-Shock Proteins / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy*
  • Multiple Myeloma / mortality
  • Multiple Myeloma / pathology*
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Recurrence
  • Retreatment


  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone BiP
  • HSPA5 protein, human
  • Heat-Shock Proteins