Human papillomavirus 11 (HPV11) is an etiological agent of anogenital warts and laryngeal papillomas and is included in the 4-valent and 9-valent prophylactic HPV vaccines. We established the largest collection of globally circulating HPV11 isolates to date and examined the genomic diversity of 433 isolates and 78 complete genomes (CGs) from six continents. The genomic variation within the 2,800-bp E5a-E5b-L1-upstream regulatory region was initially studied in 181/207 (87.4%) HPV11 isolates collected for this study. Of these, the CGs of 30 HPV11 variants containing unique single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), indels (insertions or deletions), or amino acid changes were fully sequenced. A maximum likelihood tree based on the global alignment of 78 HPV11 CGs (30 CGs from our study and 48 CGs from GenBank) revealed two HPV11 lineages (lineages A and B) and four sublineages (sublineages A1, A2, A3, and A4). HPV11 (sub)lineage-specific SNPs within the CG were identified, as well as the 208-bp representative region for CG-based phylogenetic clustering within the partial E2 open reading frame and noncoding region 2. Globally, sublineage A2 was the most prevalent, followed by sublineages A1, A3, and A4 and lineage B.
Importance: This collaborative international study defined the global heterogeneity of HPV11 and established the largest collection of globally circulating HPV11 genomic variants to date. Thirty novel complete HPV11 genomes were determined and submitted to the available sequence repositories. Global phylogenetic analysis revealed two HPV11 variant lineages and four sublineages. The HPV11 (sub)lineage-specific SNPs and the representative region identified within the partial genomic region E2/noncoding region 2 (NCR2) will enable the simpler identification and comparison of HPV11 variants worldwide. This study provides an important knowledge base for HPV11 for future studies in HPV epidemiology, evolution, pathogenicity, prevention, and molecular assay development.
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