Limbic Encephalitis Associated With GAD65 Antibodies: Brief Review of the Relevant literature

Can J Neurol Sci. 2016 Jul;43(4):486-93. doi: 10.1017/cjn.2016.13. Epub 2016 Mar 31.


Recently, many cases of autoimmune limbic encephalitis with positive GAD65 (glutamic acid decarboxylase) antibodies have been described in the scientific literature. However, it remains an understudied topic of great relevance to practicing neurologists. Thus, we report here a review of published cases, in English, of autoimmune limbic encephalitis with this type of antibodies, focusing on presenting symptoms and signs, associated conditions, and findings upon investigation. We also report treatment responses. We aim to offer a better description of the clinical spectrum of autoimmune limbic encephalitis associated with GAD65 antibodies as well as to expose its paraclinical features and outcome.

Keywords: CNS inflammation; cognitive impairment; immune system; neuroimmunology; neuroinflammation; neurology – clinical; seizures; status epilepticus.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies / metabolism*
  • Cognition Disorders / etiology
  • Databases, Bibliographic / statistics & numerical data
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Limbic Encephalitis / complications
  • Limbic Encephalitis / immunology*
  • Limbic Encephalitis / therapy*
  • Retrospective Studies


  • Antibodies
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase
  • glutamate decarboxylase 2