Inhibitory Effect of Sophorolipid on Candida albicans Biofilm Formation and Hyphal Growth

Sci Rep. 2016 Mar 31;6:23575. doi: 10.1038/srep23575.

Abstract

Candida albicans causes superficial and life-threatening systemic infections. These are difficult to treat often due to drug resistance, particularly because C. albicans biofilms are inherently resistant to most antifungals. Sophorolipid (SL), a glycolipid biosurfactant, has been shown to have antimicrobial and anticancer properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of SL on C. albicans biofilm formation and preformed biofilms. SL was found to inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation as well as reduce the viability of preformed biofilms. Moreover, SL, when used along with amphotericin B (AmB) or fluconazole (FLZ), was found to act synergistically against biofilm formation and preformed biofilms. Effect of SL on C. albicans biofilm formation was further visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), which revealed absence of hyphae, typical biofilm architecture and alteration in the morphology of biofilm cells. We also found that SL downregulates the expression of hypha specific genes HWP1, ALS1, ALS3, ECE1 and SAP4, which possibly explains the inhibitory effect of SL on hyphae and biofilm formation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amphotericin B / pharmacology
  • Antifungal Agents / isolation & purification
  • Antifungal Agents / pharmacology*
  • Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases / genetics
  • Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases / metabolism
  • Biofilms / drug effects*
  • Biofilms / growth & development
  • Candida albicans / drug effects*
  • Candida albicans / genetics
  • Candida albicans / growth & development
  • Candida albicans / ultrastructure
  • Drug Combinations
  • Drug Synergism
  • Fluconazole / pharmacology
  • Fungal Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Fungal Proteins / genetics
  • Fungal Proteins / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal / drug effects
  • Glycolipids / isolation & purification
  • Glycolipids / pharmacology*
  • Hyphae / drug effects*
  • Hyphae / genetics
  • Hyphae / growth & development
  • Hyphae / ultrastructure
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / genetics
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Microbial Viability
  • Saccharomycetales / chemistry
  • Surface-Active Agents / isolation & purification
  • Surface-Active Agents / pharmacology*

Substances

  • ALS1 protein, Candida albicans
  • ALS3 protein, Candida albicans
  • Antifungal Agents
  • Drug Combinations
  • ECE1 protein, Candida albicans
  • Fungal Proteins
  • Glycolipids
  • HWP1 protein, Candida albicans
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Surface-Active Agents
  • Amphotericin B
  • Fluconazole
  • Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases
  • SAP4 protein, Candida albicans