Antibiotic treatment of tuberculosis has a duration of several months. There is significant variability of the host immune response and the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic properties of Mycobacterium tuberculosis sub-populations at the site of disease. A limitation of sputum-based measures of treatment response may be sub-optimal detection and monitoring of Mycobacterium tuberculosis sub-populations. Potential biomarkers and surrogate endpoints should be benchmarked against hard clinical outcomes (failure/relapse/death) and may need tailoring to specific patient populations. Here, we assess the evidence supporting currently utilized and future potential host and pathogen-based models and biomarkers for monitoring treatment response in active and latent tuberculosis. Biomarkers for monitoring treatment response in extrapulmonary, pediatric and drug resistant tuberculosis are research priorities.
Keywords: Tuberculosis; biomarkers; humans; therapeutics; treatment outcome.