While primary and secondary malignant lymphomas have been well-documented in the CNS of patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), only one case of lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LG) involving the CNS has been reported. We present three AIDS patients with multiple grossly evident foci of necrosis in the cerebral hemispheres which, on histologic evaluation, were seen to contain angiocentric mixed chronic inflammatory infiltrates with atypical mononuclear cells, luminal thrombosis, and infarction, which is typical of LG. LG was also identified in sections of the lung in one case. Lymphoma was found in other regions of the brain in two cases, suggesting the evolution of LG into cerebral lymphoma. In addition, widespread perivascular multinucleate syncytial giant cells, associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of the CNS, were identified in all patients. The features of LG, its relationship to lymphoma, and the possible etiologic role of an immunodeficiency state or the HIV virus in the pathogenesis of LG are discussed.