The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of Zanthoxylum bungeanum seed oil (Z. seed oil) to alleviate airway inflammation in asthmatic mice. The asthmatic mice were treated with vehicle, ovalbumin (OVA), or OVA + Z. seed oil (2 g/kg) for between 24 h and 14 days. Following treatment, inflammatory cell infiltration and pulmonary tissue damage were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining, and immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of pro‑inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules and mitogen activated protein kinase signaling proteins were measured by enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assays, reverse transcription quantitative‑polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. In asthmatic mice, administration of Z. seed oil attenuated lung tissue injury and airway remodeling, and inhibited the infiltration of leukocytes and eosinophils into the airway by reducing the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines compared with OVA‑treated mice (P<0.05). Z. seed oil also reduced the levels of inflammatory chemokine and adhesion molecules via downregulation of extracellular signal‑regulated kinase and activation of c‑JUN N‑terminal kinase in the Z. seed‑treated mice compared with OVA‑treated mice (P<0.05). Thus, data from the present study indicates that Z. seed oil can suppress pulmonary inflammation and tissue injury during asthma, and suggests that it may be used to effectively treat allergen‑induced asthma.