We report a 7-month-old female infant with a multicystic left renal tumor having histologic features predominantly of a cystic nephroma, but with microscopic cellular foci which contained atypical mitotic figures and anaplastic nuclei. Immunohistochemistry showed strong p53 reactivity in the anaplastic region. DICER1 sequencing confirmed 2 mutations: germ line mutation c.2450delC and c.5438A>G somatic within the tumor. Despite an initial consideration of cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma, the presence of anaplasia ruled that possibility out, as this is not an acceptable feature for that diagnosis. Moreover, the germ line DICER1 mutation prompted consideration that this case represents a unique "nascent" anaplastic sarcoma of kidney, and further immunohistochemical workup demonstrated cytoplasmic, but no nuclear WT-1 reactivity in the cellular foci. The importance of meticulous sampling of cystic lesions is highlighted by this unprecedented case, which lends support to the recent recognition of anaplastic sarcoma of kidney as a DICER1-associated cancer.
Keywords: Anaplastic sarcoma; Cystic nephroma; Germline mutation; Kidney DICER1.
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