Multiplexed Imaging of Protein Phosphorylation on Membranes Based on Ti(IV) Functionalized Nanopolymers

Chembiochem. 2016 May 17;17(10):900-3. doi: 10.1002/cbic.201600068. Epub 2016 Apr 1.


Accurate protein phosphorylation analysis reveals dynamic cellular signaling events not evident from protein expression levels. The most dominant biochemical assay, western blotting, suffers from the inadequate availability and poor quality of phospho-specific antibodies for phosphorylated proteins. Furthermore, multiplexed assays based on antibodies are limited by steric interference between the antibodies. Here we introduce a multifunctionalized nanopolymer for the universal detection of phosphoproteins that, in combination with regular antibodies, allows multiplexed imaging and accurate determination of protein phosphorylation on membranes.

Keywords: antibodies; dendrimers; membranes; multiplexed analysis; phosphoproteins.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies / chemistry
  • Antibodies / immunology
  • Blotting, Western
  • Chemistry Techniques, Analytical / methods*
  • Dendrimers / chemistry
  • Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  • Fluorescent Dyes / chemistry
  • Nanostructures / chemistry*
  • Phosphoproteins / analysis*
  • Phosphoproteins / immunology
  • Titanium / chemistry*


  • Antibodies
  • Dendrimers
  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • PAMAM Starburst
  • Phosphoproteins
  • Titanium