The influence of locally applied granulocyte-colony stimulating factor on osteoporotic bone

Clin Oral Implants Res. 2017 May;28(5):586-593. doi: 10.1111/clr.12839. Epub 2016 Mar 31.


Objectives: The compromised capacity of bone healing in osteoporotic population renders a serious concern of patients and clinicians. This study aimed to investigate the influence of G-CSF on bone reconstruction using an osteoporotic animal model.

Materials and methods: Sixty skeletal mature female Spraque-Dawley rats underwent bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) and were assigned into three groups (n = 20). Three months after OVX, defects of 5 mm in cranial and 2 mm in femur were surgically created on all the animals. The defects were left unfilled, filled with gelatin sponge (GS), or filled with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) infused GS. Specimens were retrieved for histomorphometric and micro-CT analyses at weeks 1, 4, 8, and 12 after surgery.

Results: At early stage of week 1 to week 8, the histomorphometric and micro-CT analysis demonstrated more advanced bone formation in femur in the control group; by week 12, all groups achieved cortical closure. In cranial bone, more advanced bone formation was exhibited in G-CSF-treated group at both early and late stages, although this observation was not statistically significant.

Conclusions: The results indicated that in osteoporotic bone, G-CSF may advance bone healing in cranial bone where spontaneous bone formation was insufficient.

Keywords: bone defect; granulocyte-colony stimulating factor; osteoporosis; ovariectomy; rat.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Female
  • Femur / diagnostic imaging
  • Femur / drug effects
  • Femur / surgery
  • Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage
  • Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / therapeutic use*
  • Osteogenesis / drug effects
  • Osteoporosis / drug therapy*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Skull / diagnostic imaging
  • Skull / drug effects
  • Skull / surgery
  • X-Ray Microtomography


  • Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor