Prevalence of Cigarette Smoking and Associated Factors among Male Citizens in Tehran, Iran

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016;17(3):1473-8. doi: 10.7314/apjcp.2016.17.3.1473.


Background: Cigarette smoking is as the leading cause of cancer mortality and other chronic diseases in males worldwide. The prevalence of cigarette smoking is different across and within countries by age, education level, occupation, and so on. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking and its relationship with individuals' demographic factors and BMI in adolescent men living in Tehran, Iran.

Materials and methods: This study involved secondary analysis of the 'Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool-2' survey conducted in Tehran, Iran, among men aged 20+, 2011-2012. Using a multistage sampling method, 45,990 men were included in the study. The cigarette smoking status, BMI and demographic factors measured through a self-administered questionnaire. Chi-square, t-test, and logistic regression model were used to examine the relationships between the independents variables and cigarette smoking behavior, using SPSS software version 21.

Results: In the total of 45,990 men, the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking was 14.6% (CI 95%: 14.29- 14.94). Age (OR=0.96; CI 95%:0.94-0.98), house ownership (OR=0.68; CI 95%: 0.64-0.72), job status (OR=0.60; CI 95%: 0.46-0.86), marital status (OR=0.42; CI 95%: 0.39-0.47) and educational levels (OR=0.50; CI95%: 0.45-0.54) were associated with the prevalence of cigarette smoking. However, associations with BMI, family size, residency years, and district were not statistically significant.

Conclusions: Given the relatively high prevalence of cigarette smoking in the study population, policy interventions are required to address this major public health issue, with a focus on the population demographic influences.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Body Mass Index*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Iran / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / epidemiology*
  • Socioeconomic Factors*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Young Adult