Prolidase-proline dehydrogenase/proline oxidase-collagen biosynthesis axis as a potential interface of apoptosis/autophagy

Biofactors. 2016 Jul 8;42(4):341-8. doi: 10.1002/biof.1283. Epub 2016 Apr 4.


Prolidase is a cytosolic imidodipeptidase that specifically splits imidodipeptides with C-terminal proline or hydroxyproline. The enzyme plays an important role in the recycling of proline from imidodipeptides for resynthesis of collagen and other proline-containing proteins. The mechanism of prolidase-dependent regulation of collagen biosynthesis was found at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. The increase in the enzyme activity is due to its phosphorylation on serine/threonine residues. Prolidase-dependent transcriptional regulation of collagen biosynthesis was found at the level of NF-κB, known inhibitor of type I collagen gene expression. Proline dehydrogenase/proline oxidase (PRODH/POX) is flavin-dependent enzyme associated with the inner mitochondrial membrane. The enzyme catalyzes conversion of proline into Δ(1) -pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C), during which reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced, inducing intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Alternatively, under low glucose stress, PRODH/POX activation produces ATP for energy supply and survival. Of special interest is that PRODH/POX gene is induced by P53 and peroxisome proliferator-activated gamma receptor (PPARγ). Among down-regulators of PRODH/POX is an oncogenic transcription factor c-MYC and miR-23b*. On the other hand, PRODH/POX suppresses HIF-1α transcriptional activity, the MAPK pathway, cyclooxygenase-2, epidermal growth factor receptor and Wnt/b-catenin signaling. PRODH/POX expression is often down-regulated in various tumors, limiting mitochondrial proline utilization to P5C. It is accompanied by increased cytoplasmic level of proline. Proline availability for PRODH/POX-dependent ATP or ROS generation depends on activity of prolidase and utilization of proline in process of collagen biosynthesis. Therefore, Prolidase-PRODH/POX-Collagen Biosynthesis axis may represent potential interface that regulate apoptosis and survival. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(4):341-348, 2016.

Keywords: apoptosis; autophagy; collagen metabolism; prolidase; proline dehydrogenase/proline oxidase; signaling.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis*
  • Autophagy*
  • Biosynthetic Pathways
  • Collagen / biosynthesis*
  • Dipeptidases / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Proline Oxidase / physiology*
  • Signal Transduction


  • Collagen
  • Proline Oxidase
  • Dipeptidases
  • proline dipeptidase