Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) generate an aerosol vapor (e-vapor) thought to represent a less risky alternative to main stream smoke (MSS) of conventional tobacco cigarettes. RNA-seq analysis was used to examine the transcriptomes of differentiated human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells exposed to air, MSS from 1R5F tobacco reference cigarettes, and e-vapor with and without added nicotine in an in vitro air-liquid interface model for cellular exposure. Our results indicate that while e-vapor does not elicit many of the cell toxicity responses observed in MSS-exposed HBE cells, e-vapor exposure is not benign, but elicits discrete transcriptomic signatures with and without added nicotine. Among the cellular pathways with the most significantly enriched gene expression following e-vapor exposure are the phospholipid and fatty acid triacylglycerol metabolism pathways. Our data suggest that alterations in cellular glycerophopholipid biosynthesis are an important consequences of e-vapor exposure. Moreover, the presence of nicotine in e-vapor elicits a cellular response distinct from e-vapor alone including alterations of cytochrome P450 function, retinoid metabolism, and nicotine catabolism. These studies establish a baseline for future analysis of e-vapor and e-vapor additives that will better inform the FDA and other governmental bodies in discussions of the risks and future regulation of these products.