A comprehensive profile of recurrent glioblastoma

Oncogene. 2016 Nov 10;35(45):5819-5825. doi: 10.1038/onc.2016.85. Epub 2016 Apr 4.


In spite of relentless efforts to devise new treatment strategies, primary glioblastomas invariably recur as aggressive, therapy-resistant relapses and patients rapidly succumb to these tumors. Many therapeutic agents are first tested in clinical trials involving recurrent glioblastomas. Remarkably, however, fundamental knowledge on the biology of recurrent glioblastoma is just slowly emerging. Here, we review current knowledge on recurrent glioblastoma and ask whether and how therapies change intra-tumor heterogeneity, molecular traits and growth pattern of glioblastoma, and to which extent this information can be exploited for therapeutic decision-making. We conclude that the ability to characterize and predict therapy-induced changes in recurrent glioblastoma will determine, whether, one day, glioblastoma can be contained in a state of chronic disease.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Brain Neoplasms / etiology*
  • Brain Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Brain Neoplasms / therapy
  • Clinical Decision-Making
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Genomics / methods
  • Glioblastoma / diagnosis
  • Glioblastoma / etiology*
  • Glioblastoma / pathology*
  • Glioblastoma / therapy
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry / methods
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • Neoplastic Stem Cells / metabolism
  • Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology
  • Precision Medicine
  • Prognosis
  • Tumor Microenvironment