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Review
. 2016 May;27(3):262-7.
doi: 10.1097/ICU.0000000000000252.

Three-dimensional Printing of the Retina

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Free PMC article
Review

Three-dimensional Printing of the Retina

Barbara Lorber et al. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Purpose of review: Biological three-dimensional printing has received a lot of media attention over recent years with advances made in printing cellular structures, including skin and heart tissue for transplantation. Although limitations exist in creating functioning organs with this method, the hope has been raised that creating a functional retina to cure blindness is within reach. The present review provides an update on the advances made toward this goal.

Recent findings: It has recently been shown that two types of retinal cells, retinal ganglion cells and glial cells, can be successfully printed using a piezoelectric inkjet printer. Importantly, the cells remained viable and did not change certain phenotypic features as a result of the printing process. In addition, recent advances in the creation of complex and viable three-dimensional cellular structures have been made.

Summary: Some first promising steps toward the creation of a functional retina have been taken. It now needs to be investigated whether recent findings can be extended to other cells of the retina, including those derived from human tissue, and if a complex and viable retinal structure can be created through three-dimensional printing.

Figures

Box 1
Box 1
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FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1
(a) Schematic of an inkjet printing and imaging apparatus that was used to print purified retinal glial and dissociated retinal cells. Image sequences of (b) retinal cells and (c) purified glial cells as they were ejected from the nozzle. The arrows indicate individual cells. Close-up images of (d) retinal cells and (e) glial cells. Scale bar: 100 μm. Reprinted with permission from [10].
FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2
Cellular organization of the retina. Reprinted with permission from [18].

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