Considerable debate surrounds the search for the defining features of patients with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Current case definitions were created through clinical consensus. Failure to operationalize these case definitions has led to considerable variability in the identification of patients. In addition, some case definitions (e.g., Fukuda et al., 1994) do not require cardinal symptoms of this illness, where as other case definitions do require core symptoms of this illness (Carruthers et al., 2003, 2011), and these latter case criteria appear to identify a more impaired group of patients. Criterion variance is most likely to occur when operationally explicit criteria do not exist for diagnostic categories (Spitzer, Endicott, & Robins, 1978), or when there are varying criteria for contrasting case definitions, which is an impediment to the research in this field. To deal with this problem, it is possible to differentiate those that meet more loosely defined criteria from those that are more narrowly and defined, thus differentiating CFS from ME. In order to progress the search for biological markers and effective treatments, essential features need to be operationalized and broadly used in order to increase the probability that individuals included in samples have the same underlying illness.
Keywords: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis; biomarkers; case definitions; chronic fatigue syndrome; criterion variance; diagnostic unreliability.