Background and aims: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between blood pressure (BP) at 7-13 years of age and body mass index (BMI), early feeding, lifestyle indicators, and parental characteristics.
Methods and results: Retrospective plus cross-sectional cohort study was started in 1294 children born in 2000-2004, right from their birth in primary care settings. Early feeding was estimated by measuring breast-feeding (BF) duration, complementary feeding (CF) introduction time, and lifestyle indicators such as daily screen time and weekly extracurricular sports activity time. Parental education, smoking, and obesity-related diseases were also considered. Multivariable linear regression and mediation analysis were used. CF introduction at 5-6 months of age was a negative predictor of systolic and diastolic BP (mean systolic BP-standard deviation score (SDS) -0.38 [95% CI: -0.47, -0.29] (p < 0.001); mean diastolic BP-SDS -0.32 [95% CI: -0.40, -0.24]) (p < 0.001); BMI was a positive predictor of systolic and diastolic BP (p < 0.001); and parental hypertension was a positive predictor of diastolic BP (p < 0.05). Predictors of mean BMI-SDS at 7-13 years of age were birth weight, screen time, and parental obesity and smoking (p < 0.001). BF had no effect on BP or BMI. Mediation analysis showed virtually no indication of the effect of CF on BP mediated by BMI.
Conclusions: CF introduction between 5 and 6 months of age could be associated with low BP at 7-13 years. The effect of CF on BP seems to be independent of BMI. Low screen time is associated with low BMI. CF time may play a role in the occurrence of surrogates of noncommunicable disorders in future.
Keywords: Blood pressure; Body mass index; Breast-feeding; Complementary feeding; Family history; Lifestyle.
Copyright © 2015 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.