Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure during adolescence: Effects on stress-induced social alterations and social drinking in adulthood

Brain Res. 2017 Jan 1;1654(Pt B):145-156. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2016.03.050. Epub 2016 Apr 2.


We previously observed lasting and sex-specific detrimental consequences of early adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure (AIE), with male, but not female, rats showing social anxiety-like alterations when tested as adults. The present study used Sprague Dawley rats to assess whether social alterations induced by AIE (3.5g/kg, intragastrically, every other day, between postnatal days [P] 25-45) are further exacerbated by stressors later in life. Another aim was to determine whether AIE alone or in combination with stress influenced intake of a sweetened ethanol solution (Experiment 1) or a sweetened solution ("supersac") alone (Experiment 2) under social circumstances. Animals were exposed to restraint on P66-P70 (90min/day) or left nonstressed, with corticosterone (CORT) levels assessed on day 1 and day 5 in Experiment 2. Social anxiety-like behavior emerged after AIE in non-stressed males, but not females, whereas stress-induced social anxiety was evident only in water-exposed males and females. Adult-typical habituation of the CORT response to repeated restraint was not evident in adult animals after AIE, a lack of habituation reminiscent of that normally evident in adolescents. Neither AIE nor stress affected ethanol intake under social circumstances, although AIE and restraint independently increased adolescent-typical play fighting in males during social drinking. Among males, the combination of AIE and restraint suppressed "supersac" intake; this index of depression-like behavior was not seen in females. The results provide experimental evidence associating adolescent alcohol exposure, later stress, anxiety, and depression, with young adolescent males being particularly vulnerable to long-lasting adverse effects of repeated ethanol. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Adolescent plasticity.

Keywords: Adolescence; Anhedonia; Anxiety; Ethanol; Sex differences; Social facilitation; Stress.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Aging / physiology
  • Aging / psychology
  • Alcohol Drinking* / physiopathology
  • Alcohol Drinking* / psychology
  • Animals
  • Anxiety / physiopathology
  • Binge Drinking* / physiopathology
  • Binge Drinking* / psychology
  • Central Nervous System Depressants / administration & dosage*
  • Corticosterone / blood
  • Depression / physiopathology
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Ethanol / administration & dosage*
  • Female
  • Habituation, Psychophysiologic / physiology
  • Male
  • Motor Activity / physiology
  • Random Allocation
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Resilience, Psychological
  • Restraint, Physical
  • Sex Characteristics
  • Sexual Maturation / physiology
  • Social Behavior*
  • Stress, Psychological* / physiopathology


  • Central Nervous System Depressants
  • Ethanol
  • Corticosterone