Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2015;78(12):15-7.
[Article in Russian]


We have studied the effect of phenotropil on the level of cytokines IL-1, IL-4, and IL-6 under conditions of immunosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide (150 mg/kg, single i.p. injection) and under immune system hyperreactivity caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 100 gg/kg, single i.p. injection). The experiments were performed on 48 Wistar male rats aged 6-8 months. Each series was carried out according to similar schedule onree groups of animals: group 1, intact animals; group 2 received cyclophosphamide (series 1) or LPS (series 2); group 3 received phenotropil on the background of immunomodulators. Phenotropil (synthesized at the Department of Organic Chemistry of the A. I. Herzen St. Petersburg Pedagogical University) was administered in a dose of 25 mg/kg (i.p.) for 5 days, starting 2 days before the introduction of immune system activity modulatos. The levels of serum cytokines IL-1β, IL-4, and IL-6 were determined by ELISA "sandwich" with the use of monoclonal antibodies (ELISA kits of BenderMedsystems company; instrument Uniplan AIRF-01 of Picon company, Moscow) at a wavelength of 450 nm. In case of immunodeficiency caused by cyclophosphamide, there was a significant decrease in IL-1β, IL-4 and IL-6, but the introduction of phenotropil largely restored their levels. Upon stimulation with LPS, the immune response showed inc- rease in pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-β, IL-6 and decrease in IL-4. Under these conditions, phenotropil restored the normal levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and caused an increase in the level of IL-4.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cyclophosphamide / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Cyclophosphamide / pharmacology
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Immunity, Innate / drug effects
  • Immunologic Factors / pharmacology*
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / pharmacology
  • Inflammation / chemically induced
  • Inflammation / immunology
  • Inflammation / pathology
  • Inflammation / prevention & control
  • Injections, Intraperitoneal
  • Interleukin-1beta / biosynthesis
  • Interleukin-1beta / blood*
  • Interleukin-4 / biosynthesis
  • Interleukin-4 / blood*
  • Interleukin-6 / biosynthesis
  • Interleukin-6 / blood*
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Male
  • Piracetam / analogs & derivatives*
  • Piracetam / pharmacology
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa / chemistry
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Th1-Th2 Balance / drug effects


  • Immunologic Factors
  • Immunosuppressive Agents
  • Interleukin-1beta
  • Interleukin-6
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Interleukin-4
  • 4-phenylpiracetam
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Piracetam