Sodium Intake Regulates Glucose Homeostasis through the PPARδ/Adiponectin-Mediated SGLT2 Pathway

Cell Metab. 2016 Apr 12;23(4):699-711. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2016.02.019. Epub 2016 Mar 24.


High sodium intake is a major risk factor for developing hypertension in diabetes. Promotion of sodium excretion reduces cardiometabolic lesions in diabetes. However, the interaction between sodium intake and glucose homeostasis remains elusive. Here, we report that high sodium intake remarkably increased natriuresis in wild-type mice, but this effect was blunted in adipose-specific PPARδ knockout mice and diabetic mice. PPARδ activation in perirenal fat by agonist or high sodium intake inhibited renal sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) function, which is mediated by increased production of adipose adiponectin. In addition, high salt intake-induced natriuresis was impaired in diabetic states because of renal SGLT2 dysfunction. Type 2 diabetic patients with uncontrolled hyperglycemia had less natriuresis that was correlated to their plasma adiponectin levels. Our findings provide insights into the distinctive role of the PPARδ/adiponectin/SGLT2 pathway in the regulation of sodium and glucose homeostasis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adiponectin / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Cell Line
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism
  • Homeostasis
  • Humans
  • Hyperglycemia / metabolism
  • Mice
  • PPAR delta / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction*
  • Sodium, Dietary / metabolism*
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 / metabolism*


  • Adiponectin
  • Blood Glucose
  • PPAR delta
  • Sodium, Dietary
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2