Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) stimulates fibrosis. We studied its possible role as a bioactive substance for inducing localized chorioretinal wound healing along the edge of a retinal tear. The TGF-beta was applied to induced retinal tears that were examined histopathologically. One day after surgery, neither control nor TGF-beta-treated eyes developed chorioretinal wound healing. Four days, two weeks, and two months after surgery, the control eyes still had not developed chorioretinal wound healing. In contrast, the edges of the retinal tear treated with TGF-beta were adherent to the underlying Bruch's membrane via localized fibrous tissue without apparent effects elsewhere. These results demonstrate intraocular in vivo bioactivity of TGF-beta and suggest that TGF-beta may have a potential role as an alternative means for inducing a chorioretinal adhesion in the treatment of retinal tears.