Diagnosis and Management of Nasopharyngeal Stenosis

Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2016 Jul;46(4):677-89. doi: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2016.01.005. Epub 2016 Apr 5.


Choanal atresia is rare in small animal veterinary medicine, and most cases are misdiagnosed and are actually a nasopharyngeal stenosis (NPS), which is frustrating to treat because of the high recurrence rates encountered after surgical intervention. Minimally invasive treatment options like balloon dilation (BD), metallic stent placement (MS), or covered metallic stent (CMS) placement have been met with success but are associated with various complications that must be considered. The most common complication with BD alone is stenosis recurrence. The most common complications encountered with MS placement is tissue in-growth, chronic infections and the development of an oronasal fistula. The most common complications with a CMS is chronic infections and the development of an oronasal fistula, but stricture recurrence is avoided.

Keywords: Balloon dilation; Balloon expandable metallic stent; Choanal atresia; Covered metallic stent; Nasopharyngeal stenosis; Nasopharyngeal stenting; Self-expanding metallic stent.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cat Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Cat Diseases / surgery
  • Catheterization / veterinary
  • Cats
  • Constriction, Pathologic / diagnosis
  • Constriction, Pathologic / surgery
  • Constriction, Pathologic / veterinary
  • Dog Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Dog Diseases / surgery
  • Dogs
  • Nasopharyngeal Diseases / diagnosis
  • Nasopharyngeal Diseases / surgery
  • Nasopharyngeal Diseases / veterinary*
  • Stents / veterinary