Screening for Underage Drinking and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition Alcohol Use Disorder in Rural Primary Care Practice

J Pediatr. 2016 Jun;173:214-20. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.02.047.

Abstract

Objective: To examine the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Youth Guide alcohol frequency screening thresholds when applied to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria, and to describe alcohol use patterns and alcohol use disorder (AUD) characteristics in rural youth from primary care settings.

Study design: Adolescents (n = 1193; ages 12 through 20 years) visiting their primary care practitioner for outpatient visits in six rural primary care clinics were assessed prior to their practitioner visit. A tablet computer collected youth self-report of past-year frequency and quantity of alcohol use and DSM-5 AUD symptoms. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were determined.

Results: For early adolescents (ages 12 through 14 years), 1.9% met DSM-5 criteria for past-year AUD and ≥3 days with alcohol use in the past year yielded a screen for DSM-5 with optimal psychometric properties (sensitivity: 89%; specificity: 95%; PPV: 37%; NPV: 100%). For middle adolescents (ages 15 through 17 years), 9.5% met DSM-5 AUD criteria, and ≥3 past year drinking days showed optimal screening results (sensitivity: 91%; specificity: 89%; PPV: 50%; NPV: 99%). For late adolescents (ages 18 through 20 years), 10.0% met DSM-5 AUD criteria, and ≥12 past year drinking days showed optimal screening results (sensitivity: 92%; specificity: 75%; PPV: 31%; NPV: 99%). The age stratified National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism frequency thresholds also produced effective results.

Conclusion: In rural primary care clinics, 10% of youth over age 14 years had a past-year DSM-5 AUD. These at-risk adolescents can be identified with a single question on alcohol use frequency.

Keywords: adolescents; alcohol; screening.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Alcohol-Related Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Alcohol-Related Disorders / epidemiology
  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mass Screening*
  • Pennsylvania / epidemiology
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Primary Health Care*
  • Psychometrics
  • Rural Population*
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Underage Drinking / statistics & numerical data*
  • Young Adult