Purpose: To develop an improved method to measure the 31 P nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) for evaluation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) dynamics in terms of correlation time (τc ), and contribution of dipole-dipole (DD) and chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) mechanisms to T1 relaxation of ATP in human brain.
Methods: The NOE of ATP in human brain was evaluated by monitoring changes in magnetization in the β-ATP signal following a band inversion of all downfield 31 P resonances. The magnetization changes observed were analyzed using the Bloch-McConnell-Solomon formulation to evaluate the relaxation and motion dynamic parameters that describe interactions of ATP with cellular solids in human brain tissue.
Results: The maximal transient NOE, observed as a reduction in the β-ATP signal, was 24 ± 2% upon band inversion of γ- and α-ATP, which is 2-3-fold higher than achievable by frequency-selective inversion of either γ- or α-ATP. The rate of 31 P-31 P cross relaxation (0.21 ± 0.02 s-1 ) led to a τc value of (9.1 ± 0.8) × 10-8 s for ATP in human brain. The T1 relaxation of β-ATP is dominated by CSA over the DD mechanism (60%: 40%).
Conclusions: The band inversion method proved effective in amplifying 31 P NOE, and thus facilitating ATP τc and relaxation measurements. This technique renders ATP a potentially useful reporter molecule for cellular environments. Magn Reson Med 77:1409-1418, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Keywords: ATP; NOE; T1 relaxation; cross relaxation; dynamics; inversion transfer; magnetization transfer.
© 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.