Background: High salt intake may be associated with pro-inflammatory changes in the immune response, and increased clinical and MRI activity in adults with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.
Objective: We sought to determine if dietary salt intake is associated with pediatric-onset MS risk in a multicenter, case-control study.
Methods: Pediatric-onset CIS/MS cases within four years of onset and controls less than 22 years old recruited from 14 pediatric-MS centers were studied. Dietary sodium intake was assessed using the validated Block Kids Food Screener (NutritionQuest). Sodium intake, excess sodium, and sodium terciles were compared between cases and controls. Logistic regression models were adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, body mass index, and socioeconomic status.
Results: Among 170 cases (mean age=15.2±3.5) and 331 controls (mean age=14.0±3.7), no significant difference in unadjusted mean sodium intake was found between cases (2044mg/d) and controls (2030mg/d, p=0.99). The proportion of subjects consuming excess sodium, based on the adequate intake for age and gender, was similar between cases and controls (65% versus 69%, p=0.34). There were no increased odds of higher sodium intake among cases as compared to controls (for each 100mg/d increase in sodium, OR=1.00, 95% CI 0.98, 1.02; p=0.93, for excess sodium intake, OR=1.05, 95% CI 0.67, 1.64; p=0.84).
Conclusions: Our results show no strong association between dietary salt intake and pediatric-onset MS risk, suggesting that salt intake may not play a prominent role in susceptibility to MS in children.
Keywords: Dietary factors; Epidemiology; Multiple sclerosis; Pediatric; Salt; Susceptibility.
Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.