[Update in family medicine: Periodontal disease]

Semergen. 2017 Mar;43(2):141-148. doi: 10.1016/j.semerg.2016.02.005. Epub 2016 Apr 8.
[Article in Spanish]


About 85-94% of the Spanish adults older than 35 experience gum problems, and about 15-30% suffer from periodontitis, being severe in up to 5-11% of them. Unlike other inflammatory conditions, periodontal disease rarely causes discomfort, or limits life or causes functional limitations until its advanced stages, when clinical signs and symptoms arise (gingival recession, pathological teeth migration, or mobility). Lack of knowledge about the disease, together with the idea that tooth loss is linked to ageing, frequently results in a late diagnosis, requiring extensive treatments with a worse prognosis. At Primary Care level, there is series of drugs have been related to periodontal disease (anticonvulsants, immunosuppressive drugs, and calcium channel blockers) as secondary effects, which vary as regards their frequency and severity depending of the amount of accumulated plaque. Stress and depression have also been reported to alter the immune response and to increase the inflammatory response as well as periodontal susceptibility. Certain systemic conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disorders, respiratory diseases, as well as low-weight pre-term birth, have also been linked to periodontitis.

Keywords: Atención primaria; Enfermedad periodontal; Family physician; Medicina de familia; Periodontal diseases; Primary care; Review; Revisión.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Family Practice
  • Gingival Recession / epidemiology*
  • Humans
  • Periodontal Diseases / diagnosis
  • Periodontal Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Periodontal Diseases / etiology
  • Periodontitis / diagnosis
  • Periodontitis / epidemiology*
  • Periodontitis / etiology
  • Primary Health Care
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Factors
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Spain