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Review
. Mar-Apr 2017;38(2):108-116.
doi: 10.3109/13816810.2016.1164193. Epub 2016 Apr 12.

Prostaglandins in the Eye: Function, Expression, and Roles in Glaucoma

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Review

Prostaglandins in the Eye: Function, Expression, and Roles in Glaucoma

Lance P Doucette et al. Ophthalmic Genet. .

Abstract

Prostaglandins are small pro-inflammatory molecules derived from arachidonic acid that play roles in a multitude of biological processes including, but not limited to, inflammation, pain modulation, allergies, and bone formation. Prostaglandin analogues are the front-line medications for the treatment of glaucoma, a condition resulting in blindness due to the death of retinal ganglion cells. These drugs act by lowering intraocular pressure (IOP), a major risk factor for glaucoma. The currently used prostaglandin analogues (latanoprost, bimatoprost, tafluprost, and travoprost) mimic PGF2 and target one of the prostaglandin receptors (FP), though research into harnessing the other receptors using compounds like Sulprostone (EP3 receptor), or Iloprost (IP receptor) are currently ongoing. In this review, we summarize the research into each of the prostaglandin molecules (PGD2, PGE2, PGF2, PGI2, TXA2) and their respective receptors (DP, EP1, 2, 3, 4, FP, IP). We examine the modes of action of each of these receptors, their expression, their role in aqueous humour production and outflow within the eye, as well as their roles as medications for the treatment of glaucoma.

Keywords: Eye; g-protein coupled receptors; glaucoma; intraocular pressure; ocular genetics; prostaglandins.

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