Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
. 2016 Apr 9;17(4):537.
doi: 10.3390/ijms17040537.

Hepatotoxicity by Dietary Supplements: A Tabular Listing and Clinical Characteristics

Free PMC article

Hepatotoxicity by Dietary Supplements: A Tabular Listing and Clinical Characteristics

Miren García-Cortés et al. Int J Mol Sci. .
Free PMC article


Dietary supplements (DS) are extensively consumed worldwide despite unproven efficacy. The true incidence of DS-induced liver injury (DSILI) is unknown but is probably under-diagnosed due to the general belief of safety of these products. Reported cases of herbals and DS-induced liver injury are increasing worldwide. The aim of this manuscript is to report a tabular listing with a description of DS associated with hepatotoxicity as well as review the phenotype and severity of DSILI. Natural remedies related to hepatotoxicity can be divided into herbal product-induced liver injury and DS-induced liver injury. In this article, we describe different DS associated with liver injury, some of them manufactured DS containing several ingredients (Herbalife™ products, Hydroxycut™, LipoKinetix™, UCP-1 and OxyELITE™) while others have a single ingredient (green tea extract, linoleic acid, usnic acid, 1,3-Dimethylamylamine, vitamin A, Garcinia cambogia and ma huang). Additional DS containing some of the aforementioned ingredients implicated in liver injury are also covered. We have also included illicit androgenic anabolic steroids for bodybuilding in this work, as they are frequently sold under the denomination of DS despite being conventional drugs.

Keywords: Herbalife products; Hydroxycut; Oxyelite Pro; anabolic steroids; dietary supplements; green tea; hepatotoxicity; liver injury; usnic acid; vitamin A.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 21 articles

See all "Cited by" articles


    1. Serafini M., Stanzione A., Foddai S., Anton R., Delmulle L. The European role on traditional herbal medicinal products and traditional plant food supplements. J. Clin. Gastroenterol. 2012;46:S93–S94. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0b013e318266b08f. - DOI - PubMed
    1. European Medicines Agency Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC) [(accessed on 13 January 2014)]. Available online:
    1. Commission on Dietary Supplement Labels Chapter I Dietary Supplement Health And Education Act of 1994. [(accessed on 13 January 2014)]; Available online:
    1. Radimer K., Bindewald B., Hughes J., Ervin B., Swanson C., Picciano M.F. Dietary supplement use by US adults: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: 1999–2000. Am. J. Epidemiol. 2004;160:339–349. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwh207. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Bailey R.L., Gahche J.J., Lentino C.V., Dwyer J.T., Engel J.S., Thomas P.R., Betz J.M., Sempos C.T., Picciano M.F. Dietary supplement use in the United States: 2003–2006. J. Nutr. 2011;141:261–266. doi: 10.3945/jn.110.133025. - DOI - PMC - PubMed

Publication types

MeSH terms