Significance of Hematoma Shape and Density in Intracerebral Hemorrhage: The Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage Trial Study

Stroke. 2016 May;47(5):1227-32. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.116.012921. Epub 2016 Apr 12.


Background and purpose: In patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), the shape and density of the hematoma are associated with its subsequent growth, but the impact of these parameters on clinical outcome is uncertain.

Methods: Baseline computed tomographic scans and clinical data were obtained in the Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage Trial (INTERACT2). Three independent neurologists blind to clinical data assessed ICH for shape and density using a previously described scale. Shape was defined as irregular when the ICH had ≥2 extra lesions added to the ellipsoid-shaped ICH. Density was heterogeneous when there were ≥3 low-density lesions within the ICH. Outcome measures were death and major disability (modified Rankin scale score of 3-5), combined and separate at 90-day postrandomization. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine the significance of hematoma characteristics on outcome.

Results: There were 2066 patient computed tomographic scans included in the analysis, with 46% and 38% having irregular and heterogeneous ICH, respectively. Irregular shape was independently associated with death/major disability (adjusted odds ratio, 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29-1.98) and major disability alone (adjusted odds ratio, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.31-1.95), but not with death alone (adjusted odds ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.68-1.39). Heterogeneous density was not associated with clinical outcomes (adjusted odds ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.85-1.33), 1.04 (95% CI, 0.73-1.48), and 1.14 (95% CI, 0.93-1.39), respectively, for death/major disability, death alone, and disability alone).

Conclusions: Irregular shape, but not heterogeneous density, is independently associated with poor outcome after ICH.

Clinical trial registration: URL: Unique identifier: NCT00716079.

Keywords: blood pressure; brain imaging; cerebral hemorrhage; hypertension; stroke.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Blood Pressure / physiology
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / diagnostic imaging*
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / epidemiology
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / mortality
  • Female
  • Hematoma / diagnostic imaging*
  • Hematoma / epidemiology
  • Hematoma / mortality
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Outcome Assessment, Health Care*
  • Single-Blind Method

Associated data