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. Jan-Mar 2016;41(1-2):6-21.
doi: 10.1080/87565641.2016.1164172. Epub 2016 Apr 13.

Ventral Striatum Connectivity During Reward Anticipation in Adolescent Smokers

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Free PMC article

Ventral Striatum Connectivity During Reward Anticipation in Adolescent Smokers

Lee Jollans et al. Dev Neuropsychol. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Substance misusers, including adolescent smokers, often have reduced reward system activity during processing of non-drug rewards. Using a psychophysiological interaction approach, we examined functional connectivity with the ventral striatum during reward anticipation in a large (N = 206) sample of adolescent smokers. Increased smoking frequency was associated with (1) increased connectivity with regions involved in saliency and valuation, including the orbitofrontal cortex and (2) reduced connectivity between the ventral striatum and regions associated with inhibition and risk aversion, including the right inferior frontal gyrus. These results demonstrate that functional connectivity during reward processing is relevant to adolescent addiction.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1. Stimuli and timings in the MID Task
Cues signaling the task condition (no reward, small reward, large reward) were displayed for 4-4.5 s. The response and feedback phase lasted a total of 2 s. Trials were separated by a 3.5 – 4.15 s inter-trial interval.
Figure 2
Figure 2. Machine Learning analysis procedure
The machine learning analysis was carried out in two stages: (1) The optimal Elastic Net parameters for each main cross-validation (CV) fold were identified using nested CV within each main CV fold. Bootstrap aggregation was used in this step. (2) The optimal Elastic Net parameters for each main CV fold were applied to the full training set (90% of the data) to generate beta weights for all input variables. These beta weights were then used to generate outcome predictions for the remaining, untouched 10% of the dataset in each main CV fold. The goodness-of-fit was estimated using the outcome predictions for the entire dataset.
Figure 3
Figure 3. ROIs for which functional connectivity with the VS during anticipation of a large reward vs. no reward was associated with lifetime smoking
L: Left; R: Right; A: Anterior; P: Posterior; PCC: Posterior Cingulate; IPL: Inferior Parietal Lobule; TP: Temporal Pole; SMG: Supramarginal Gyrus; SOG: Superior Occipital Gyrus, SFG: Superior Frontal Gyrus; MFG: Middle Frontal Gyrus. Functional connectivity between the VS and nodes drawn in red was positively associated with smoking frequency. Functional connectivity between the VS and nodes drawn in blue was negatively associated with smoking frequency. This figure was generated using BrainNet Viewer (Xia, Wang, & He, 2013).

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