Neuroprotective Properties of Compounds Extracted from Dianthus superbus L. against Glutamate-induced Cell Death in HT22 Cells

Pharmacogn Mag. 2016 Apr-Jun;12(46):109-13. doi: 10.4103/0973-1296.177905.

Abstract

Background: Dianthus superbus L. has been used in Chinese herbal medicine as a diuretic and anti-inflammatory agent.

Objective: In this study, we isolated ten bioactive compounds from D. superbus and evaluated their neuroprotective activity against glutamate-induced cell death in the hippocampal neuronal HT22 cells.

Materials and methods: New compound, (E)-methyl-4-hydroxy-4-(8a-methyl-3-oxodecahydronaphthalen-4a-yl) (1) and, nine known compounds, diosmetin-7-O (2'',6''-di-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-pentyl ester benzenepropanoic acid (3), vanillic acid (4), 4-hydroxy-benzeneacetic acid (5), 4-methoxybenzeneacetic acid (6), (E)-4-methoxycinnamic acid (7), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethanol (8), hydroferulic acid (9), and methyl hydroferulate (10), were isolated by bioactivity-guided separation. Structures of the isolated compounds were identified on the basis of (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), (13)C NMR, and two-dimensional NMR spectra, while their neuroprotective properties were evaluated by performing the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay.

Results: D. superbus extract had a neuroprotective effect and isolated 10 compounds. Among the compounds, compounds 5 and 6 effectively protected HT22 cells against glutamate toxicity.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the extract of D. superbus and compounds isolated from it exhibited neuroprotective properties, suggesting therapeutic potential for applications in neurotoxic diseases.

Summary: D. superbus extract significantly protected on glutamate-induced cell death in HT22 cellsNew compound, (E)-methyl-4-hydroxy-4-(8a-methyl-3-oxodecahydronaphthalen-4a-yl) (1) and, nine known compounds, diosmetin-7-O(2'',6''-di-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-pentyl ester benzenepropanoic acid (3), vanillic acid (4), 4-hydroxy-benzeneacetic acid (5), 4-methoxybenzeneacetic acid (6), (E)-4-methoxycinnamic acid (7), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethanol (8), hydroferulic acid (9), and methyl hydroferulate (10) were isolated from D. superbus extract4-hydroxy-benzeneacetic acid and 4-methoxybenzeneacetic acid showed significant protective activity against glutamate-induced toxicity in HT22 cells. Abbreviations used: CNS: Central nervous system, ROS: Reactive oxygen species, CHCl3: Chloroform, EtOAc: Ethyl acetate, BuOH: Butanol, HPLC: High performance liquid chromatography, TLC: Thin layer chromatography, MPLC: Middle performance liquid chromatography, MeOH: Methanol, OD: Optical density, COSY: Correlation spectroscopy, HMQC: Heteronuclear multiple-quantum correlation, HMBC: Heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation, HR-MS: High-resolution molecular spectroscopy, MTT: 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide.

Keywords: Dianthus superbus; isolation; neuroprotective activity; nuclear magnetic resonance.