Brain-Gut-Bone Marrow Axis: Implications for Hypertension and Related Therapeutics

Circ Res. 2016 Apr 15;118(8):1327-36. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.307709.


Hypertension is the most prevalent modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and disorders directly influencing cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality, such as diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, obstructive sleep apnea, etc. Despite aggressive attempts to influence lifestyle modifications and advances in pharmacotherapeutics, a large percentage of patients still do not achieve recommended blood pressure control worldwide. Thus, we think that mechanism-based novel strategies should be considered to significantly improve control and management of hypertension. The overall objective of this review is to summarize implications of peripheral- and neuroinflammation as well as the autonomic nervous system-bone marrow communication in hematopoietic cell homeostasis and their impact on hypertension pathophysiology. In addition, we discuss the novel and emerging field of intestinal microbiota and roles of gut permeability and dysbiosis in cardiovascular disease and hypertension. Finally, we propose a brain-gut-bone marrow triangular interaction hypothesis and discuss its potential in the development of novel therapies for hypertension.

Keywords: blood pressure; bone marrow; dysbiosis; hypertension; microbiota.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bone Marrow / metabolism*
  • Brain / metabolism*
  • Enteric Nervous System / metabolism*
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome / physiology
  • Gastrointestinal Tract / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / diagnosis
  • Hypertension / metabolism*
  • Hypertension / therapy*
  • Risk Reduction Behavior