Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
, 23 (3), 379-88

Variation in Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Apple Seeds of Seven Cultivars

Affiliations

Variation in Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Apple Seeds of Seven Cultivars

Ying Xu et al. Saudi J Biol Sci.

Abstract

Polyphenols are the predominant ingredients in apple seeds. However, few data are available on the phenolic profile or antioxidant activity in apple seeds in previous researches. In this study, low-molecular-weight phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in seeds, peels, and flesh of seven apple cultivars grown in northwest China were measured and analyzed using HPLC and FRAP, DPPH, ABTS assays, respectively. HPLC analysis revealed phloridzin as the dominant phenolic compound in the seeds with its contents being 240.45-864.42 mg/100 gDW. Total phenolic content (TPC) measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay in apple seed extracts of seven cultivars ranged from 5.74 (Golden Delicious) to 17.44 (Honeycrisp) mgGAE/gDW. Apple seeds showed higher antioxidant activity than peels or flesh; antioxidant activity in seeds varied from 57.59 to 397.70 μM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g FW for FRAP, from 37.56 to 64.31 μM TE/g FW for DPPH, and from 220.52 to 708.02 μM TE/g FW for ABTS. TPC in apple seeds was significantly correlated with all three assays. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that Honeycrisp was characterized with high contents of total polyphenols and phloridzin. Our findings suggest that phenolic extracts from apple seeds have good commercial potential as a promising antioxidant for use in food or cosmetics.

Keywords: AOA, antioxidant activity; Antioxidant activity; Apple seeds; FRAP, ferric reducing/antioxidant power; PCA, principal component analysis; Phenolics; Phloridzin; Principal component analysis; TPC, total phenolic content.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Chromatogram of 12 polyphenols with PDA detected at 280 nm (A) and 320 nm (B). Peaks: 1 – gallic acid; 2 – protocatechuic acid; 3 – catechin; 4 – proanthocyaninB2; 5 – chlorogenic acid; 6 – epicatechin; 7 – caffeic acid; 8 – ferulic acid; 9 – hyperin; 10 – phloridzin; 11 – ellagic acid; 12 – quercitin.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Chromatograms of Honeycrisp apple seed polyphenols detected at 280 nm (A) and 320 nm (B).
Figure 3
Figure 3
TPCs of apple seed extracts of seven cultivars. Bars represent mean ± standard error (n = 3). Different letters denote significant difference according to one way ANOVA and Duncan’s test (p < 0.05), identical letters indicate that the samples are not significantly different from one another. C1, C2, C3… represent the cultivar as mentioned in Table 1.
Figure 4
Figure 4
DPPH (A) and ABTS (B) radical scavenging activities of seed polyphenols (SP) compared with tea polyphenols (TP), Vitamin C (VC) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Each value is expressed as mean ± SD (n = 3).
Figure 5
Figure 5
Projection of samples and variables on the factorial plane formed by the first two principle components. C1, C2, C3… represent the cultivar as mentioned in Table 1.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 9 articles

See all "Cited by" articles

References

    1. Bai X., Zhang H., Ren S. Antioxidant activity and HPLC analysis of polyphenol-enriched extracts from industrial apple pomace. J. Sci. Food Agric. 2013;93:2502–2506. - PubMed
    1. Benzie I.F.F., Strain J.J. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Anal. Biochem. 1996;239:70–76. - PubMed
    1. Bhushan S., Kalia K., Sharma M., Singh B., Ahuja P.S. Processing of apple pomace for biotechnological applications. Crit. Rev. Biotechnol. 2008;28:285–296. - PubMed
    1. Brand-Williams W., Cuvelier M.E., Berset C. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. Lebensm. Wiss. Technol. 1995;26:25–30.
    1. Carbone K., Giannini B., Picchi V., Lo Scalzo R., Cecchini F. Phenolic composition and free radical scavenging activity of different apple cultivars in relation to the cultivar, tissue type and storage. Food Chem. 2011;127:493–500. - PubMed
Feedback