During hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, the presence of HBV-specific antibody producing B cells and functional HBV-specific T cells (with helper or cytotoxic effects) ultimately determines HBV infection outcome. In this review, in addition to summarizing the present state of knowledge of HBV-adaptive immunity, we will highlight controversies and uncertainties concerning the HBV-specific B and T lymphocyte response, and propose future directions for research aimed at the generation of more efficient immunotherapeutic strategies.
Keywords: Antiviral immunity; B lymphocytes; Immunodominance; T cell exhaustion; T lymphocytes.
Copyright © 2016 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.