Thirty-eight children and adolescents (ages 7-17 years) with chronic asthma were evaluated on three measures of psychosocial and family adjustment. The children's average theophylline level and percentage of noncompliant theophylline levels (theophylline level less than 5 mg/dl) were correlated with behavior problems, perceived self-competence in controlling their conduct, general feelings of self-worth, and family climate (cohesiveness vs. conflict; level of family organization and control). Regression analyses indicated that a combination of psychological adjustment, degree of family conflict versus cohesiveness, and the interaction of these two variables were predictive of compliance as measured by mean theophylline levels. Only psychological adjustment was associated with percent of noncompliant theophylline levels. Measures of self-worth, self-competence in controlling conduct, and family organization were not related to medication compliance measures.