Examining multidimensional sport-confidence in athletes and non-athlete sport performers

J Sports Sci. 2017 Mar;35(5):410-418. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2016.1167934. Epub 2016 Apr 18.


Sport-confidence is considered a critical success factor for sport performers at all levels. Researchers have suggested that sport-confidence is a multidimensional rather than a unidimensional construct, and the sport-confidence model identified three types of sport-confidence (i.e., physical skills and training, cognitive efficiency, and resilience) that are important for success in sport. However, such multidimensionality of sport-confidence and its measurement have not been fully examined. On a large sample of sport performers with varied skill levels and characteristics, the purpose of the present study was to examine the three-factor model of sport-confidence. We tested the measurement invariance of the Sport-Confidence Inventory across 512 athletes and 1170 non-athlete sport performers. Results from the multiple group model analysis showed that the three-factor model of sport-confidence fit better for the athlete sample than for the non-athlete sample. The results implicate that the three-factor model of sport-confidence model is suitable to athletes, though sport-confidence may appear more unidimensional for non-athletes. The use of the Sport-Confidence Inventory for non-athlete sport performers demands further consideration; however, the findings implicate that it could be a useful tool to assess sport-confidence of sport performers at any levels.

Keywords: Self-efficacy; learning; psychological assessment; sport psychology.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Athletes / psychology*
  • Athletic Performance / psychology*
  • Cognition
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Models, Psychological
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Resilience, Psychological
  • Self Efficacy*
  • Young Adult